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; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism.
Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary, the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas.
All greatly admired Hellenic civilization, and Hegel additionally steeped himself in Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lessing during this time.
Hegel's principal achievement is his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism sometimes termed "absolute idealism", in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome.
His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy.
Hegel's studies at the Gymnasium were concluded with his Abiturrede ("graduation speech") entitled "The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey" At the age of eighteen Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift (a Protestant seminary attached to the University of Tübingen), where he had as roommates the poet Friedrich Hölderlin and the philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling.He lectured on "Logic and Metaphysics" and gave joint lectures with Schelling on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and held a "Philosophical Disputorium." In 1802, Schelling and Hegel founded a journal, the Kritische Journal der Philosophie ("Critical Journal of Philosophy"), to which they each contributed pieces until the collaboration was ended when Schelling left for Würzburg in 1803.In 1805, the University promoted Hegel to the position of Extraordinary Professor (unsalaried), after Hegel wrote a letter to the poet and minister of culture Johann Wolfgang Goethe protesting at the promotion of his philosophical adversary Jakob Friedrich Fries ahead of him.Hegel secured a position at the University as a Privatdozent (unsalaried lecturer) after submitting an inaugural dissertation on the orbits of the planets.Later in the year Hegel's first book, The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy, was completed.His account of the master–slave dialectic has been highly influential, especially in 20th-century France.Of special importance is his concept of spirit (Geist: sometimes also translated as "mind") as the historical manifestation of the logical concept and the "sublation" (Aufhebung: integration without elimination or reduction) of seemingly contradictory or opposing factors; examples include the apparent opposition between nature and freedom and between immanence and transcendence.Hegel has been seen in the 20th century as the originator of the thesis, antithesis, synthesis triad; while Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that "all the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel." He was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, in the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany.Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family.At the age of three Hegel went to the "German School".When he entered the "Latin School" two years later, he already knew the first declension, having been taught it by his mother.