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In the older Indo-European languages, many such verbs survive: None of these sorts of forms survive in modern English, although they existed in its parent Germanic languages.A number of verbs in the Indo-European languages exhibit reduplication in the present stem rather than the perfect stem, often with a different vowel from that used for the perfect: Latin gigno, genui ("I beget, I begat") and Greek τίθημι, ἔθηκα, τέθηκα (I place, I placed, I have placed).The origin of this usage of tautonym is uncertain, but it has been suggested that it is of relatively recent derivation. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: IPA.The base is the word (or part of the word) that is to be copied.The reduplicated element is called the reduplicant, often abbreviated as or sometimes just R.Finnish colloquial speech uses this process; nouns can be reduplicated to indicate genuinity, completeness, originality and being uncomplicated as opposed to being fake, incomplete, complicated or fussy. For example, Söin jäätelöä ja karkkia, sekä tietysti ruokaruokaa."I ate ice cream and candy, and of course food-food". One may say "En ollut eilen koulussa, koska olin kipeä.
A reduplicant can copy from either the left edge of a word (left-to-right copying) or from the right edge (right-to-left copying).In reduplication, the reduplicant is most often repeated only once.However, in some languages, reduplication can occur more than once, resulting in a tripled form, and not a duple as in most reduplication.Other Indo-European verbs used reduplication as a derivational process; compare Latin sto ("I stand") and sisto ("I remain").All of these Indo-European inherited reduplicating forms are subject to reduction by other phonological laws.Internal L → R copying in Quileute: A rare type of reduplication is found in Semai (an Austroasiatic language of Malaysia)."Expressive minor reduplication" is formed with an initial reduplicant that copies the first and last segment of the base: All of the examples above consist of only reduplication.Reduplication can be used to refer to the most prototypical instance of a word's meaning.In such a case, it is called contrastive focus reduplication.There is a tendency for prefixing reduplicants to copy left-to-right and for suffixing reduplicants to copy right-to-left: Initial L → R copying in Oykangand Kunjen (a Pama–Nyungan language of Australia): Internal reduplication can also involve copying the beginning or end of the base.In Quileute, the first consonant of the base is copied and inserted after the first vowel of the base.